国立国語研究所
 
 

Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series: Overview INTRODUCTION

Here we publically release under the title "Corpus of Historical Japanese Meiji-Taishō Period Series I, Magazines," data for magazines from the Meji and Taishō periods, under the title "Corpus of Historical Japanese Meiji-Taishō Period Series II, Textbooks," data for government-designated national language textbooks used in elementary and higher elementary schools, and under the title "Corpus of Historical Japanese Meiji-Taishō Period Series III, Early Meiji Spoken Language Materials," the principle data for spoken language published in the early Meiji period, and data for 21 novels (by 21 authors) from the Mid-Meiji period through the Taishō period under the title of “Corpus of Historical Japanese Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series IV Modern Novels”.

※ Long Unit Word information has not been annotated for this data.

Magazines, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series I

Overview

The "Corpus of Historical Japanese Meiji-Taishō Period Series I, Magazines" covers the published material for each year in a determined series of years for magazines representative of the Meiji and Taishō periods, respectively. Taking as its material magazines with a great variety of article genres and a great range of authors, the corpus is designed to enable a broad survey of aspects of written language, such as the shift from the classical style that was mainstream in the early Meiji period to the establishment of Contemporary Japanese, and to capture change in modern language diachronically.

Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series I: Magazines

The titles, publication dates, (and volume numbers) of the magazines included in the Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series I: Magazines corpus are as follows:

  • Meiroku Zasshi 明六雑誌
      1874 (nos. 1-25)
      1875 (nos. 26-43)
  • Tōyō Gakugei Zasshi 東洋学芸雑誌
      1881 (nos. 1-3)
      1882 (nos. 4-15)
  • Kokumin no Tomo 国民之友
      1887 (nos. 1-13)
      1888 (nos. 14-36)
  • Taiyō 太陽
      1895 (vol. 1, nos. 1-12)
      1901 (vol. 7, nos. 1-5, 7-10, 12-14)
      1909 (vol. 15, nos. 1-2, 4-6, 8, 10-14, 16)
      1917 (vol. 23, nos. 1-6, 8-10, 12-14)
      1925 (vol. 31, nos. 1-5, 7, 9-14)
  • Jogaku Zasshi 女学雑誌
      1894 (nos. 387-405)
      1895 (nos. 406-417)
  • Jogaku Sekai 女学世界 1909 (vol. 9, nos. 3, 5, 8, 10, 13, 16)
  • Fujin Kurabu 婦人倶楽部 1925 (vol. 6, nos. 3, 6, 12)

About the coverage of the texts

In principle, for each magazine the entirety of the text is taken as the object for annotation, but the following textual elements are included in the coverage.

  • Cover
  • Table of contents
  • Catalogue of contents
  • Publishing information
  • Addenda
  • Frontispiece
  • Articles centered on charts and figures
  • Articles written in kanbun or in European languages
  • Articles correcting misprints or mistakes in previous issues
  • Articles apologizing for failure to print other articles
  • Retail price for the magazine
  • Announcements of the mode of sale and the fees for advertising
  • Advertisements

Furthermore, the following items are excluded from the range of textual elements designated for coverage in the corpus.

  • Text and captions in charts, figures, illustrations, and photographs
  • Paragraphs written in kanbun or European languages

Introductory notes / Users' manual / Annotation guidelines

In addition to the Short Unit Word morphological information rendered searchable in the text of this corpus, information on the genre, title of the magazine, article, and author has been annotated and can be accessed in the search results of the corpus search application Chūnagon.
Please read the following abstract for this corpus before use:

Please see the following pages for details on the specifications of the four sub-corpora that comprise this corpus:

The Short Unit Word morphological information for this corpus has been annotated according to the distinction between Literary and Colloquial Japanese, set out in the Annotation Guidelines listed below:
Please consult the Annotation Guidelines before use.

Links to images of the original texts of the magazines

Images of the original texts of the magazines can be accessed through the search results from Chūnagon, so that the text of the corpus can be compared to the original documents during use. Please note that images of the original texts for Jogaku Zasshi, Jogaku Sekai, and Fujin Kurabu are not available.

Note for Users

Presentations of research results using this corpus must include a citation taking the general form of the example below (with appropriate modifications depending on the version and the date of access):

  • National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (Kondō, Asuko; Mabuchi, Yōko; Hattori Noriko; Nagumo, Chikako, et. al.) (eds.) (2019) "Corpus of Historical Japanese, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series I: Magazines." (Short Unit Word data 1.2) https://ccd.ninjal.ac.jp/chj/meiji_taisho.html#zasshi (accessed March 29, 2019)

* As long as one of either the version or the date of access is clearly cited, the other can be omitted, as below:

  • National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (2019) "Corpus of Historical Japanese, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series I: Magazines". https://ccd.ninjal.ac.jp/chj/meiji_taisho.html#zasshi (accessed March 29, 2019)
  • National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (2019) "Corpus of Historical Japanese, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series I: Magazines". (Short Unit Word data 1.2) https://ccd.ninjal.ac.jp/chj/meiji_taisho.html#zasshi

Users will need to access the Corpus of Historical Japanese through the online search engine Chūnagon. Completion of a Users Licensing Agreement is required.
Please refer to the following: The Corpus of Historical Japanese: How to apply

Development Staff

    Developers

  • Kondō, Asuko; Mabuchi, Yōko; Hattori, Noriko; Nagumo, Chikako (Adjunct Researcher)

    Assisting in Development

  • Ogiso, Toshinobu (Professor); Tanaka, Makirō (Professor, Meiji University)
  • Kōno, Tomoaki (Postdoctoral Research Fellow)
  • Kikawa, Azusa; Nakano, Atsuko; Wakasa, Aya; Hori, Asami (Technical Staff)
  • Umeda, Asuka; Ogawa, Shino; Katō, Fumiko; Takahashi, Yūta; Nakamura, Ren (Production assistants)

* Titles are current with the time of development.

The corpus compilation was supported by the "Design for a Diachronic Corpus" (2009-2016) project and the "Construction of Diachronic Corpora and New Developments in Research on the History of Japanese" (2016-) project, and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP15H01883 (2015-2019).

Textbooks, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series II

Overview

In 1903, in accordance with amendments to the Elementary School Order, a national textbook system was established that limited the use of textbooks in elementary schools to those for which the Ministry of Education owned the copyright, and from 1904 national textbooks were used in Japanese language classes. The national textbooks for Japanese language were compiled with the aim of accomplishing, through national language education, the completion of a style unifying writing and speech as a written language form, and the establishment of a standard spoken language. The materials were major contributors to the establishment and spread of the standard language used in modern Japan. In the "Meiji and Taisho Edition II Textbooks" corpus are recorded the nationally prescribed Japanese language textbook used at elementary schools (Period 1 to Period 6) and the nationally-prescribed Japanese language textbook used at higher elementary schools (Period 1). The period (the first year of use) and the name of each textbook recorded are as follows:

    Elementary school
  • First period (1904) Jinjō Shōgaku Tokuhon vol. 1-8 尋常小学読本 一~八
  • Second period (1910) Jinjō Shōgaku Tokuhon vol. 1-12 尋常小学読本 巻一~十二
  • Third period (1918) Jinjō Shōgaku Kokugo Tokuhon vol. 1-12 尋常小学国語読本 巻一~十二
  • Forth period (1933) Shōgaku Kokugo Tokuhon Jinjōka-yo vol. 1-12 小学国語読本尋常科用 巻一~十二
  • Fifth Period (1941) Yomikata vol. 1-2 ヨミカタ 一~二, Yomikata vol. 3-4 よみかた 三~四, Shotō-ka Kokugo vol.1-8 初等科国語 一~八
  • Sixth Period (1947) Kokugo vol. 1-4 こくご 一~四, Kokugo: The Third-Sixth Grade 国語 第三学年~第六学年
    Higher elementary school
  • First period (1904) Kōtō Shōgaku Tokuhon vol. 1-8 高等小学読本 一~八

About the coverage of the texts

In principle, for each magazine the entirety of the text is taken as the object for annotation, but the following textual elements are included in the coverage.

  • Cover
  • Table of contents

Furthermore, the following items are excluded from the range of textual elements designated for coverage in the corpus.

  • text and captions in charts, figures, illustrations, and photographs

The data for the elementary school textbooks in this corpus are based on the text data of the body of text used in creating the "Kokutei-Yōgo-Sōran CD-ROM Edition" (National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics, 1997). In addition, the data for higher elementary school textbooks is based on the data from the separately created Morphologically Annotated Corpus of "Koutou-Shōgaku Tokuhon" (higher elementary school readers) (Asuko Kondo, Toshinobu Ogiso, Fumiko Kato, (2010), 'The Morphologically Annotated Corpus of "Koutou-Shōgaku Tokuhon"' ('The Collected Papers from the "Information Processing Society of Japan Symposium (Jinmonkon 2010 Collected Papers)', 2010:15, pp.189-194). The present corpus unifies these two sets of data and reconstructs the information in line with the design of the "Corpus of Historical Japanese".

Introductory notes / Users' manual / Annotation guidelines

In addition to the Short Unit Word morphological information rendered searchable in the text of this corpus, information on the period and grade has been annotated and can be accessed in the search results of the corpus search application Chūnagon. Please read the following abstract for this corpus before use:

The Short Unit Word morphological information for this corpus has been annotated according to the distinction between Literary and Colloquial Japanese, set out in the Annotation Guidelines listed below:

Please consult the Annotation Guidelines before use.

Links to images of the original texts of the national textbooks

Images of the original texts of the national textbooks can be accessed through the search results from Chūnagon, so that the text of the corpus can be compared to the original documents during use.

Note for Users

Presentations of research results using this corpus must include a citation taking the general form of the example below (with appropriate modifications depending on the version and the date of access):

  • National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (Hattori, Noriko; Mabuchi, Yōko; Kondō, Asuko et. al.) (eds.) (2018) "Corpus of Historical Japanese, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series II: Textbooks". (Short Unit Word data 1.0, Chūnagon version) http://ccd.ninjal.ac.jp/chj/meiji_taisho.html#kyokasho (accessed October 15, 2018 )

* As long as one of either the version or the date of access is clearly cited, the other can be omitted, as below:

  • National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (2018) "Corpus of Historical Japanese, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series II: Textbooks". http://ccd.ninjal.ac.jp/chj/meiji_taisho.html#kyokasho (accessed October 15, 2018 )
  • National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (2018) "Corpus of Historical Japanese, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series II: Textbooks". (Short Unit Word data 1.0) http://ccd.ninjal.ac.jp/chj/meiji_taisho.html#kyokasho

Users will need to access the Corpus of Historical Japanese through the online search engine Chūnagon. Completion of a Users Licensing Agreement is required.
Please refer to the following: The Corpus of Historical Japanese: How to apply

Development Staff

    Developers
  • Hattori, Noriko (Adjunct Researcher)
  • Mabuchi, Yōko (Project Assistant Professor)
  • Kondō, Asuko (Adjunct Researcher)

    Assisting in Development
  • Ogiso, Toshinobu (Professor)
  • Matsuzaki, Yasuko (Postdoctral Research Fellow)
  • Nagumo, Chikako (Adjunct Researcher)
  • Kikawa, Azusa; Nakano, Atsuko; Bandō, Ryō; Wakasa, Aya (Technical Staff)
  • Umeda, Asuka; Katō Fumiko; Takahashi, Yūta (Production assistants)

* Titles are current with the time of development.

The corpus compilation was supported by the "Construction of Diachronic Corpora and New Developments in Research on the History of Japanese" (2016-) project.

Early Meiji Spoken Language Materials, Meiji Era / Taishō Era III

Overview

The "Corpus of Historical Japanese Meiji-Taishō Period Series III, Early Meiji Spoken Language Materials" is a corpus collecting the principle materials for spoken language published in the early Meiji period. The materials collected are considered to be crucial for the understanding of the spoken language of the time, and of the colloquial writing style (genbun'icchi-tai --the writing style unifying Classical and Spoken Japanese) which spread and became established in the Meiji and Taishō Periods.

Collected works and source texts:

The titles, publication dates, (and volume numbers) of the magazines included in the Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series I: Magazines corpus are as follows:

※ For details on the works in the collection, please see the overview of this corpus.

About the coverage of the texts

The entirety of the text for each work has been taken as the object for annotation, but the following textual elements are included in the coverage for the corpus.

  • Cover
  • Catalogue of contents
  • Publication information
  • Advertisements

Furthermore, the following items are excluded from the range of textual elements designated for coverage in the corpus.

  • Text attached to illustrations and charts
  • Paragraphs written in English or European languages

Overview / Users' manual / Annotation guidelines

Please read the following the overview of this corpus before use:

The Short Unit Word morphological information for this corpus has been annotated according to the distinction between Literary and Colloquial Japanese, set out in the Annotation Guidelines listed below:
Please consult the Annotation Guidelines before use.

Note for Users

Presentations of research results using this corpus must include a citation taking the general form of the example below (with appropriate modifications depending on the version and the date of access):

  • National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (Kondō, Asuko; Ichimura, Tarō; Tokiwa, Tomoko, et. al.) (eds.) (2021) "Corpus of Historical Japanese, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series III: Early Meiji Spoken Language Materials". (Short Unit Word data 0.9) https://ccd.ninjal.ac.jp/chj/meiji_taisho.html#shokikogo (accessed March 31, 2021)

* As long as one of either the version or the date of access is clearly cited, the other can be omitted, as below:

  • National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (2021) "Corpus of Historical Japanese, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series III: Early Meiji Spoken Language Materials". https://ccd.ninjal.ac.jp/chj/meiji_taisho.html#shokikogo (accessed March 31, 2021)
  • National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (2021) "Corpus of Historical Japanese, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series III: Early Meiji Spoken Language Materials". (Short Unit Word data 0.9) https://ccd.ninjal.ac.jp/chj/meiji_taisho.html#shokikogo

Users will need to access the Corpus of Historical Japanese through the online search engine Chūnagon. Completion of a Users Licensing Agreement is required.
Please refer to the following: The Corpus of Historical Japanese: How to apply

Development Staff

    Developers

  • Kondō, Asuko (Adjunct Researcher, The National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics; Researcher, Meiji University)
  • Ichimura, Tarō (Assistant Professor, Tokoha University; Former Adjunct Researcher, The National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics)
  • Tokiwa, Tomoko (Professor, Shirayuri University)

    Assisting in Development

  • Ogiso, Toshinobu (Professor); Tanaka, Makirō (Professor, Meiji University); Takada, Tomokazu (Associate Professor)
  • Takahashi, Yūta; Hori, Asami (Technical Staff)
  • Ōkubo, Ayumi (Production assistants)

* Titles are current with the time of development.

The corpus compilation was supported by the "Design for a Diachronic Corpus" (2009-2016) project and the "Construction of Diachronic Corpora and New Developments in Research on the History of Japanese" (2016-) project, JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP15H01883 (2015-2019), and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP15H01883 (2015-2019), and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17K02786 (2017-2020).

Modern Novels, Meiji Era / Taishō Era IV

Overview

Modern novels are literary works written in a new style of language, born out of the influence of “civilization and enlightenment” which incorporated the culture and thought of the Western world. For research into the unification of the written and spoken language, a language change that is one the symbols of Japanese modernity, these are indispensable resources. Furthermore, they are crucial resources that contain history and achievements that have been the object of research on modern language in every field, beginning with those of vocabulary, style, and orthography.

Works Comprising the Corpus, and their Source Texts

The following 21 works are the novels that comprise this corpus:

  • Ukigumo 浮雲
  • Maihime 舞姫
  • Gojū-no-tō 五重塔
  • Takekurabe たけくらべ
  • Imato shinjū 今戸心中
  • Musashino 武蔵野
  • Omoide no ki 思出の記
  • Kōya hiziri 高野聖
  • Wagahai wa neko de aru 吾輩は猫である
  • Huton 蒲団
  • Doko he 何処へ
  • Aru onna 或る女
  • Arakure あらくれ
  • Udekurabe 腕くらべ
  • Den-en no yūutsu 田園の憂鬱
  • Kura no naka 蔵の中
  • Anya kōro 暗夜行路
  • Mugen hōyō 無限抱擁
  • Nobuko 伸子
  • Lemon 檸檬
  • Izu no odoriko 伊豆の踊子
※ Concerning the methods for selecting the works comprising this corpus, the coverage of the texts therein, and for details on the source texts used for producing the corpus texts, please refer to the following link: Overview; Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series IV: Modern Novels from the Corpus of Historical Japanese (CHJ)

About the coverage of the texts

In principle the entirety of the text for each volume of a work is taken as the object of annotation, but the following textual elements are excluded the coverage of texts.

  • Cover
  • Table of Contents
  • Colophon
  • Preface, Introductory Remarks, Foreword (Items unrelated to the content of the work itself)
  • Afterword, Epilogue

Furthermore, the following items are excluded from the range of textual elements designated for coverage in the corpus.

  • Text attached to illustrations and charts

Concerning for details on the coverage of the texts, please refer to the following link: Overview; Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series IV: Modern Novels from the Corpus of Historical Japanese (CHJ)

Overview / Users' manual / Annotation guidelines

Please read the following the overview of this corpus before use:

The Short Unit Word morphological information for this corpus has been annotated according to the distinction between Literary and Colloquial Japanese, set out in the Annotation Guidelines listed below:
Please consult the Annotation Guidelines before use.

Links to the original texts

With regard to the 10 works for which images of the original texts have been made public, it is possible to refer to images of the original texts from the National Diet Library Digital Collections while using the corpus by accessing them through search results generated in Chūnagon. (Please note that, out of the 21 works comprising this corpus, the 11 works for which images of the original texts have not been made public are not available for reference. Furthermore, please be aware in advance that with regard to the images that have been made open to the public, in addition to incomplete sections, there are also parts containing marginalia, tearing, and other damage that make viewing difficult.)

Note for Users

Presentations of research results using this corpus must include a citation taking the general form of the example below (with appropriate modifications depending on the version and the date of access):

  • National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (Takahashi, Yūta; Hattori, Noriko, et. al.) (eds.) (2021) "Corpus of Historical Japanese, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series IV: Modern Novels". (Short Unit Word data 1.0) https://ccd.ninjal.ac.jp/chj/meiji_taisho.html#shosetsu (accessed April 1, 2021)
  • * As long as one of either the version or the date of access is clearly cited, the other can be omitted, as below:

  • National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (2021) "Corpus of Historical Japanese, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series IV: Modern Novels". https://ccd.ninjal.ac.jp/chj/meiji_taisho.html#shosetsu (accessed April 1, 2021)
  • National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (2021) "Corpus of Historical Japanese, Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series IV: Modern Novels". (Short Unit Word data 1.0) https://ccd.ninjal.ac.jp/chj/meiji_taisho.html#shosetsu
  • Users will need to access the Corpus of Historical Japanese through the online search engine Chūnagon. Completion of a Users Licensing Agreement is required.
    Please refer to the following: The Corpus of Historical Japanese: How to apply

    Development Staff

      Developers
      • Takahashi, Yūta; Hattori, Noriko(Adjunct Researcher)

      Assisting in Development
      • Ogiso, Toshinobu (Professor); Mabuchi, Yoko (Project Assistant Professor)
      • Kondō, Asuko (Adjunct Researcher)
      • Nakano, Atsuko; Nakamura, Ren; Bando, Ryō (Technical Staff)
      • Atsumi, Maki; Ogawa, Shino; Miura, Satsuki(Production assistants)

    * Titles are current with the time of development.

    The corpus compilation was supported by the "Construction of Diachronic Corpora and New Developments in Research on the History of Japanese" (2016-) project.

     
     
    event
    unidic_bnr

    日本語をはじめとする言語を分析するための基礎資料として、書き言葉や話し言葉の資料を体系的に収集し、研究用の情報を付与したものです。